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Computer Hardware: Hardware Components and Internal PC Connections. You might see a specification for a PC 1 such as "containing an Intel i7 Hexa core We will learn about the evolution of IDE/ATA, what the pinouts are and exactly what /public/us/en/documents/product-briefs/zzexpress-chipset- perpemethico.ml computer is composed of hardware and components of your computer such as the . a modern computer without having to learn all the details of how. Tools for teaching computer networking and hardware concepts / Nurul Sarkar, editor. p. cm. Summary: "This book offers concepts of the teaching and learning.
Figure 9. CD ROM A laser moves back and forth near the disk surface and accesses data at a very fast rate. Figure Input Devices - Accepts data and instructions from the user or from another computer system. Two 2 Types of Input Devices 1. Keyboard Entry — Data is inputted to the computer through a keyboard. Keyboard - The first input device developed for the PC. Data is transferred to the PC over a short cable with a circular 6-pin Mini-din connector that plugs into the back of the motherboard.
Keyboard 2. Direct Entry — A form of input that does not require data to be keyed by someone sitting at a keyboard. Three Categories of Direct Entry Devices 1. Pointing Devices - An input device used to move the pointer cursor on screen.
Every mouse has two buttons and most have one or two scroll wheels. Used in myriad applications, including ATM machines, retail point-of-sale terminals, car navigation and industrial controls. The touch screen became wildly popular for smart phones and tablets.
The user brings the pen to the desired point on screen and presses the pen button to make contact. F Figure Also called a "graphics tablet," the user contacts the surface of the device with a wired or wireless pen or puck.
Often mistakenly called a mouse, the puck is officially the "tablet cursor.
Scanning Devices- A device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translates the information into a form the computer can use. Image scanner Figure Bar Code Reader 3. Voice- Input Devices - Audio input devices also known as speech or voice recognition systems that allow a user to send audio signals to a computer for processing, recording, or carrying out commands.
Audio input devices such as microphones allow users to speak to the computer in order to record a voice message or navigate software. Output Devices - Any piece of computer hardware that displays results after the computer has processed the input data that has been entered. Computer Display Monitor- It displays information in visual form, using text and graphics.
The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen or video display terminal. Types of Monitor a. They are relatively big 14" to 16" deep and heavy over 15 lbs. Cathode Ray Tube Monitor b. It has recently been made commercially available as monitors for desktop PCs. Light Emitting Diode Monitor 2. LCD Projectors- utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass through them.
Each crystal, therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light. LCD Projector 3. Smart Board - A type of display screen that has a touch sensitive transparent panel covering the screen, which is similar to a touch screen. Printer - A device that prints text or illustrations on paper. Ink-jet printers produce high-quality text and graphics.
Laser printers produce very high quality text and graphics. Line printers are very fast, but produce low-quality print. Thermal printers are widely used in calculators and fax machines. Speakers - Used to play sound.
They may be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer. Ports - External connecting sockets on the outside of the computer. This is a pathway into and out of the computer.
A port lets users plug in outside peripherals, such as monitors, scanners and printers. Table 1. This is only for old model printer. It has 25 pins. It is a female port. Array Port It has 15 pins and it is a female port. It is used to connect latest model printers, pen drives, cell phones etc.
Power Port Intended for power cord. Audio Port Intended for plugging in the speaker or headset. Cables and Wires- A cable is most often two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly, but can also refer to a heavy strong rope.
Table 2. This type of jack is intended for the audio and microphone port. Modern or new model of peripherals like printer, camera, scanners and even other portable computer attachments used USB type of plugs. This printer cable jack is intended for the parallel port.
RJ45 "RJ" in RJ45 stands for "registered jack," since it is a standardized networking interface and the "45" simply refers to the number of the interface standard is a type of connector commonly used for Ethernet networking. Software can be split into two main types: System Software — Any software required to support the production or execution of application programs, but which is not specific to any particular application. Application Software — Designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related tasks.
Examples of application software are as follows: Word processing software - Creates, edits, saves, and prints documents. Spreadsheet software - An electronic spreadsheet consisting of rows and columns is used to present and analyze data. Database management software - Used to structure a database, a large collection of computer programs. Data is organized as fields and records for easy retrieval. Graphic software - Graphics programs display results of data manipulation for easier analysis and presentation.
Process Task 1: Performance Test Direction: Given the different cables, identify their functions as well as the part of computer system each one supports. In the puzzle below, look for the 10 hidden computer components and give their role on the computer system. View actual personal computer and discuss its parts and function. Utilizing the Internet and the website YouTube, view a video regarding parts of the computer.
Use the URLs below: Explain your answer. Draw and label the different hardware of a computer. After drawing and labeling the hardware components, group them into Input Devices, Output Devices and Storage Devices.
Pre- Test Direction: Select the letter of the correct answer. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. Which tool is used for hardware to stand on to prevent static electricity from building up?
Anti-static mat c. Philips head screwdriver b. Hex driver d. Wire cutter 2. Which tool is used to loosen or tighten cross-head screws? Wire cutter 3.
Which tool is sometimes called a nut driver? It is used to tighten nuts in the same way that a screwdriver tightens screws? Wire cutter 4. Which tool is used to strip and cut wires? Wire cutter 5. Which tool is used to retrieve parts from location that are too small for your hand to fit?
Part Retriever c. Cable ties b. Lint-free Cloth d. Flat head screwdriver 6. Which tool is used to clean different computer components without scratching or leaving debris? Flat head screwdriver 7. Which tool is used to bundle cables neatly inside and outside of a computer? Flat head screwdriver 8. Which tool is used to loosen or tighten slotted screws? Flat head screwdriver 9. Which tool is used to loosen or tighten screws that have a star-like depression on the top, a feature that is mainly found on laptop?
Torx screwdriver d. Wire cutter Which tool is used to blow away dust and debris from different computer parts without touching the components? Compressed air b. Use of Tools in PC Hardware Servicing To complete hardware repairs, it is important to have a toolkit that should contain all of the necessary tools. As you gain experience, you will learn which tools to have available for different types of jobs.
Hardware tools are grouped into these four categories: The friction of moving air alone will charge suspended particles and cause the buildup of static electrical charges on people and objects in the environment. Grounded antistatic work mats used with antistatic wrist straps provide the most basic means for the controlled discharge of electrostatic electricity.
Examples of ESD Tools: Anti-static wrist strap — Used to prevent ESD damage to computer equipment. Anti- static wrist strap Anti-static mat — Used to stand on or place hardware on to prevent static electricity from building up.
Hand tools can be used manually or electrically powered, using electrical current. Examples of Hand Tools are as follows: Table 3. Philips Head Screwdriver — Used to loosen or tighten cross-head screws. Torx Screwdriver - Used to loosen or tighten screws that have a star-like depression on the top, a feature that is mainly found on laptop.
Hex Driver — Sometimes called a nut driver, is used to tighten nuts in the same way that a screwdriver tightens screws. Needle-Nose Pliers — Used to hold small parts. Tweezers — Used to manipulate small parts. Part Retriever — Used to retrieve parts from location that is too small for your hand to fit.
Flashlight — Used to light up areas that you cannot see well. Cleaning Tools Having the appropriate cleaning tools is essential when maintaining or repairing computers. Using these tools ensures that computer components are not damaged during cleaning. Table 4. Cleaning Tools Tools Description Lint-free Cloth — Used to clean different computer components without scratching or leaving debris.
Cable Ties — Used to bundle cables neatly inside and outside of a computer. Parts Organizer — Used to hold screw, jumpers, fasteners and other small parts and prevents them from getting mixed together. Diagnostic Tools Computers are easier to use and more dependable with each new generation of hardware and operating system update, but that does not mean they are problem-free. Here are the most popular tools for diagnosing your computer problems: Table 5.
Diagnostic tools Tools Description Multimeter — Used to test the integrity of circuits and the quality of electricity in computer components.
Loopback Adapter — Used to test the functionality of computer ports. Connect the cable to the metal chassis of the computer. Wrap the strap around your wrist. The connection will keep your body at the same voltage potential as the computer. Attach the wire on the same side of the equipment as the arm wearing the antistatic wrist strap to keep the wire out of the way while you are working.
Never wear an antistatic wrist strap if you are repairing a monitor or CRT. Proper Use of Antistatic Mat 1. Lay the computer on the mat. Connect the computer to the mat with the cable. Connect the mat to a reliable electrical ground with its cable. Now, you and the computer are at ground potential. Use the proper type and size of screwdriver by matching it to the screw. Do not over tighten screws because the threads may become stripped. If excessive force is needed to remove or add a component, something may be wrong.
Magnetized tools should not be used around electronic devices.
Pencils should not be used inside the computer because the pencil lead can act as a conductor and may damage the computer components.
Use mild cleaning solution and lint-free cloth to clean computer cases, outside of monitor, LCD screen, CRT screen and mouse. Use compressed air to clean heat sinks. Use Isopropyl alcohol and lint-free swabs to clean RAM. Use hand-held vacuum cleaner with a brush attachment to clean a keyboard. Before cleaning any device, turn it off and unplug the device from the power source. Name a Tool Directions: Name the tools presented below. Write your answers on the space provided before each tool.
Performance test Directions: Using the different available tools in the laboratory, you will segregate the tools according to their classification whether it is an ESD tool, Hand tool, cleaning tool or a diagnostic tool.
You will be rated according to the scoring rubric below: Watch the video presentations on youtube using the following URL: After watching the presentation, you must answer the following questions: Clean it up!!
Complete the computer cleaning chart shown below. Indicate the appropriate tools to be used in cleaning the different computer components. Use the appropriate tools to do each of the following tasks. Safety precautions must be observed while working.
Loosen computer casing screws. Blow away dust from keyboard. Tighten screws of a PC. Bundle cables inside the computer. Test functionality of the printer port. Scoring Rubrics: Was the tool used accurately? Task Yes No 1. Loosen computer casing screws 2.
Blow away dust from keyboard 3. Tighten screws of a PC 4. Bundle cables inside the computer 5. Test functionality of the printer port Note: Each YES for accurate use of tools will be equivalent to 2 points. Fill up the diagram below with the things you think will be harmful when doing a hardware repair.
Occupational Health and Safety Procedures Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control Occupational safety and health OSH is a planned system of working to prevent illness and injury where you work by recognizing and identifying hazards and risks. Health and safety procedure is the responsibility of all persons in the computer and technology industries.
You must identify the hazards where you are working and decide how dangerous they are. Eliminate the hazard or modify the risk that it presents. There are three steps to manage health and safety at work: Spot the Hazard Hazard Identification , 2. Assess the Risk Risk Assessment and 3. Make the Changes Risk Control. Spot the Hazard A hazard is anything that could hurt you or someone else. Examples of workplace hazards include: If you see, hear or smell anything odd, take note. If you think it could be a hazard, tell someone.
Assess the Risk Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be. Whenever you spot a hazard, assess the risk by asking yourself two questions: Always tell someone your employer, your supervisor or your health and safety representative about hazards you can't fix yourself, especially if the hazard could cause serious harm to anyone. If you are not sure of the safest way to do something during work experience, always ask your supervisor.
Make the Changes It is your employer's responsibility to fix hazards. Sometimes you may be able to fix simple hazards yourself, as long as you don't put yourself or others at risk.
For example, you can pick up things from the floor and put them away to eliminate a trip hazard. Common hazards encountered by computer technicians and users A hazard is a situation in the workplace that has the potential to harm the health and safety of people or to damage plant and equipment. The situation could involve a task, chemical or equipment used.
Hazard management is a continuous process that can be used to improve the health and safety of all workplaces. Physical Hazards One of the most common physical hazards involving computer technicians is cables running across the floor. If someone trips, falls, and hurts himself because of a cable you ran across the floor, someone you, your employer, or your customer has a serious legal negligence problem.
If you need to temporarily run a cable across the floor, place a Danger sign similar to those "wet floor" signs used by cleaning services. For cables that are temporary but will need to run across the floor for a longer period of time, use "gaffers tape". Gaffers tape is a heavy tape with strong adhesive to stick to the floor. For long term cable routing there is a wide variety of cable organizing devices like cable ties, cable wraps, and cable raceways which can be used to run cable safely along the wall or ceiling.
Mechanical Hazards When working on electronic equipment, ask yourself "Is there any way this equipment could hurt me? You might move your hand past a computer chassis and lose a chunk of flesh because it is razor sharp.
When working on electronic equipment always be alert to any possibility of being hurt by moving parts, hot components, or sharp edges. Chemical Hazards There is a wide array of chemicals used with electronic equipment. There are display cleaning chemicals, keyboard cleaning chemicals, compressed gas dirt and dust removers, and many cleaning solvents. Some of these chemicals can be harmful if accidentally swallowed, get on bare skin, or get in eyes. Before using any chemicals for electronic equipment always read the warnings and instructions on the label.
Also be very careful when dealing with inkjet printer cartridges, or laser printer toner cartridges. Ink and toner can stain skin, clothing and carpet. Electric Shock Hazard Inside computers and electronic equipment, there is a range of voltages from 3.
But at the power supply, you will find line voltage, which is a lethal volts. The workplace should have safety guidelines to follow to: Always ground or discharge yourself before touching any part of the computer.
Do not work alone so that there is someone who can take care of you in case of accident or emergency. Be careful with the tools that may cause short circuit. Always full the cable connector on the handle and not hold on the cable itself.
Use only rubber shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Make sure that the pins are properly aligned when connecting a cable connector. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it.
Take away any liquid such as mineral water or soft drinks near your working area or near computers. Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire, and other emergencies are recognized. Personal protective equipment is correctly used in accordance with organization procedures and practice.
Take necessary precautions to protect the component of the computer from damaged caused by Electrostatic Discharge ESD. Read and follow instructions on the manual carefully. Do not use excessive force if things do not quite slip into place.
Identifying Safety Precautions A. On the table provided below, list down the safety precautions applicable for people, equipment and the environment. Use the safety precautions when working as your reference. People Equipment Environment B. Identify what hazard is being illustrated in the situation below. Short Interview Directions: Conduct an interview with a skilled computer technician and ask the following guide questions: What are your personal preparations for your own safety when working?
What are the other safety precautions that you apply when working? What are your tips for beginners like us in adhering with the safety precautions? Task 2: Time to Browse Directions: Using the internet, read more eBooks about occupational health and safety precautions.
Also you can watch video presentations featuring safety precautions when working. Have a note or hard copy of what you have researched. You may use the following web sites as your reference: I Care for Safe Work Direction: Pay attention to the procedures and arrangement being practiced and used in the workplace. Identify hazards and assess the risk based on your observations. Spot the hazard If you spot something hazardous, what should you do? Skills Test Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order for you to render quality service when you enter the real world of Computer Hardware Servicing.
Read carefully the skills then put a check mark in Not much if you are not really familiar, A little if you have a little knowledge and A lot if you are familiar with the skill.
Lesson 4: Assembly and Disassembly of a Personal Computer One of the basic skills that you must acquire in computer hardware servicing is to independently assemble and disassemble a personal computer or simply setting up a PC. After familiarizing with all the tools and safety precautions I believe that you are now ready to gain another experience in CHS by going through this lesson. Unplugging - The first thing you do is to unplug every cable that is plugged in to your computer.
Just unplug all the cables for safety purposes. Now that your computer is fully unplugged, move your PC to a clean work space, preferably a carpet. The carpet is better than tile, because screws and other small parts will roll around.
On most computer cases, there will be large knobs that you can unscrew by hand or by screw driver on the back-right side of the computer.
The left side has small screws because on that side you can't access much on the inside. Screw at the back of computer chasis Once the screws are removed, you can remove the side panels.
On most computers, they just slide off. Start with the left side panel the side that once had the knobs , slide it towards the back of the computer. Now you can remove the left panel. Just like the other side, slide it towards the back of the computer. As soon as the machine is switched off, data is erased. RAM is volatile.
Volatile means that the data stored in memory is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. There are different types of RAM available. Some of them are described below. The term dynamic indicates that the memory must be constantly refreshed or it loses its contents. This type of memory is more economical. The term static is derived from the fact that it does not need to be refreshed like DRAM.
This type of memory is non-volatile.
The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture. A ROM, stores such instructions that are required to start a computer. This operation is referred to as bootstrap. The different types of ROM are given below. The MROM cannot be programmed by the user. EPROM is erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes.
It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times. Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 milliseconds. Secondary Storage External Storage Devices Floppy diskettes, hard disk, tapes and optical disks come under the category of external storage devices or ancillary storage devices.
These devices are very sensitive to environmental conditions humidity and temperature as well as to external magnetic fields and need to be stored carefully. Information on a floppy disk is recorded in the magnetized states of particles of iron oxides evenly placed upon concentric circles known as tracks.
It contains a stack of metal platters, each coated with iron oxide, that spin on a spindle and the entire unit is encased in a sealed chamber. C Magnetic Tape This is plastic tape, usually made of Mylar that is coated with iron oxide, thereby enabling the introduction writing ; retention memory and reading of magnetically recorded information. The best use of tape storage is for data that you do not use very often.
If a peripheral device is disconnected, the computer will still be able to work; only functions performed by this peripheral device will not be available.
Here are the most used types of peripheral devices: A Keyboard The most common and very popular input device which helps in inputting data to the computer. It consists of keys that are capable of inputting alphabets, numbers and special characters.
You can also navigate using the keyboard and perform shortcut functions. B Mouse Mouse is the most popular pointing device and cursor-control device having a small palm size box with a round ball at its base which senses the movement of mouse and sends corresponding signals to CPU when the mouse buttons are pressed. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form.
The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of pixels. D Printer Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper.
Impact Printers: The impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the paper. Non-Impact Printers: Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. These printers print a complete page at a time so they are also called as Page Printers. Laser Printers, Inkjet Printers. E Joy Stick It is a device used to move cursor position on a monitor screen.